Mount /tmp with `noexec` and `nosuid` Options Inside chroot

Tags: January 15, 2013 6:55 AM
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To add extract security on chroot environment, it's better to make the /tmp directory cannot execute a file by mounting /tmp with 'noexec' and 'nosuid' options.

Create Partiotion

To simplify just create loopback device file for mounting /tmp later. (The size of partition for this example is 50MB)
  • /opt/jail: chroot directory
  • /opt/tmpdisk.img: loopback device
# dd if=/dev/zero of=/opt/tmpdisk.img bs=1M count=50
# mkfs.ext4 /opt/tmpdisk.img
# mount -o loop,rw,noexec,nosuid /opt/tmpdisk.img /opt/jail/tmp
Verify to make sure the mounted partition has 'noexec' and 'nosuid'.
# mount
----[SNIP]----
/opt/tmpdisk.img on /opt/jail/tmp type ext4 (rw,noexec,nosuid,commit=0)
----[SNIP]----

Test the /tmp

Try to execute some of executable file inside /tmp directory.
# cp /opt/jail/bin/ls /opt/jail/tmp/
# chroot /opt/jail /bin/bash
# /bin/ls
# /tmp/ls
bash: /tmp/ls: Permission denied
# /lib/ld-linux.so.2 /tmp/ls
/tmp/ls: error while loading shared libraries: /tmp/ls: failed to map segment from shared object: Operation not permitted
References

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Fix "Whoami: Can't Find Name for User ID" Inside Chroot

Tags: January 8, 2013 7:46 PM
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Jika perintah whoami pada lingkungan chroot memunculkan pesan error seperti berikut:

whoami: cannot find name for user ID 0
Berarti ada yang salah dengan requirement yang dibutuhkan binary `whoami` entah itu shared library atau file-file konfigurasi.

Cara Memperbaiki

  1. Pastikan file /etc/passwd dan /etc/group isi dan permissionnya benar (0644).
  2. Pastikan terdapat file /etc/nsswitch.conf yang isinya kurang lebih seperti berikut:
    # /etc/nsswitch.conf
    #
    # Example configuration of GNU Name Service Switch functionality.
    # If you have the `glibc-doc-reference' and `info' packages installed, try:
    # `info libc "Name Service Switch"' for information about this file.
    
    passwd:         compat
    group:          compat
    shadow:         compat
    
    hosts:          files dns
    networks:       files
    
    protocols:      db files
    services:       db files
    ethers:         db files
    rpc:            db files
    
    netgroup:       nis
  3. Pastikan terdapat file-file konfigurasi PAM auth di /etc/pam.d/.
  4. Cek library apa saja yang diload ketika runtime dengan menggunakan program strace.
  5. Copy library-library tersebut dari Host ke lingkungan chroot. Dari observasi penulis, file-file yang perlu dicopy adalah:
    /lib/tls/i686/cmov/libnss_nis.so.2
    /lib/tls/i686/cmov/libnss_files.so.2
    /lib/tls/i686/cmov/libnss_compat.so.2
    /lib/tls/i686/cmov/libnsl.so.1
    
Reference

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Minimal chroot Environment

Tags: January 7, 2013 11:21 PM
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I need to isolate the Mozilla Spidermonkey javascript shell. The goal is simple: Create a minimal chroot environment. So, here is my setup.

# mkdir /media/jail
# mkdir -p /media/jail/{bin,usr,lib,usr/lib,dev,sys,tmp,proc}
# chmod a+rwx /media/jail/tmp
# cp /bin/bash /media/jail/bash
Mount some special file systems and device files.
# mount -t proc proc /media/jail/proc
# mount -t sysfs -o rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev none /media/jail/sys
# mount -o bind /dev /media/jail/dev
# chroot /media/jail /bin/bash
Note: Use "mount" command to see what your system use for the proc, dev, sys, etc.

Reference

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Shared Library Extractor

Tags: January 5, 2013 9:38 AM
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Untuk mempermudah penyalinan file-file library yang akan digunakan pada lingkungan chroot, penulis menggunakan shell script berikut.

#!/bin/bash
#
################################################################################
# Shell Script untuk melakukan otomasi penyalinan file-file yang diperlukan    #
# oleh sebuah binary/program.                                                  #
#                                                                              #
# @author Rio Astamal <[email protected]>                                      #
################################################################################
#
ACTION=$1
JAIL_FILE=$2
JAIL_ROOT=$3
LIST_FILES=

# cek apakah file ada
if [ ! -e $JAIL_FILE ]; then
 echo "Error: file '${JAIL_FILE}' tidak ditemukan."
 exit 2
fi

# cek apakah direktori target jail ada
if [ ! -d $JAIL_ROOT ]; then
 echo "Error: direktori jail '${JAIL_ROOT}' tidak ditemukan."
fi

show_help() {
 echo "Penggunaan: $0 [OPTIONS] [JAIL_FILE] [JAIL_ROOT]"
 echo ""
 echo "Dimana OPTIONS:"
 echo "  file - Mencetak daftar library."
 echo "  dir - Mencetak nama direktori dari daftar library."
 echo "  run - Melakukan penyalinan ke direktori JAIL_ROOT."
 echo ""
 echo "Contoh:"
 echo "$0 dir /usr/bin/nginx /opt/jail"
 echo ""
}

# Fungsi untuk mencetak daftar file library yang dibutuhkan oleh file binary
# yang ingin di-jail.
show_files() {
 LIST_FILES=`ldd $JAIL_FILE | awk '{print $3}' | grep ^/`
 LD_LINUX=`ldd $JAIL_FILE | grep ld-linux | awk '{print $1}'`
 
 for f in $LIST_FILES
 do
  echo $f
 done
 echo $LD_LINUX
}

# Fungsi untuk mencetak nama direktori dari setiap file library
show_directories() {
 LIST_FILES=`ldd $JAIL_FILE | awk '{print $3}' | grep ^/`
 LD_LINUX=`ldd $JAIL_FILE | grep ld-linux | awk '{print $1}'`
 
 for f in $LIST_FILES
 do
  dirname $f
 done
 dirname $LD_LINUX
}

if [ "$ACTION" == "file" ]; then
 show_files
elif [ "$ACTION" == "dir" ]; then
 show_directories
elif [ "$ACTION" == "run" ]; then
 # buat direktori tujuan dulu sebelum melakukan copy file
 for folder in `show_directories`
 do
  mkdir -p "${JAIL_ROOT}${folder}"
 done
 
 # copy setiap library
 for f in `show_files`
 do
  TARGET="${JAIL_ROOT}${f}"
  echo -n "Copying $f to ${TARGET}..."
  cp $f "${JAIL_ROOT}${f}" 2>/dev/null
  
  if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
   echo "done."
  else
   echo "failed."
  fi
 done
fi

Simpan dengan nama ldd-extractor.sh lalu beri atribut +x.

Contoh Penggunaan

Melihat daftar shared library dari program "ncat".

# ldd-extractor file /usr/bin/ncat 
/lib/i686/cmov/libssl.so.0.9.8
/lib/i686/cmov/libcrypto.so.0.9.8
/usr/lib/libpcap.so.0.8
/lib/tls/i686/cmov/libdl.so.2
/lib/tls/i686/cmov/libc.so.6
/lib/libz.so.1
/lib/ld-linux.so.2

Melakukan penyalinan ke jail direktori yang telah ditentukan.

# ldd-extractor run /usr/bin/ncat /opt/jail
Copying /lib/i686/cmov/libssl.so.0.9.8 to /opt/jail/lib/i686/cmov/libssl.so.0.9.8...done.
Copying /lib/i686/cmov/libcrypto.so.0.9.8 to /opt/jail/lib/i686/cmov/libcrypto.so.0.9.8...done.
Copying /usr/lib/libpcap.so.0.8 to /opt/jail/usr/lib/libpcap.so.0.8...done.
Copying /lib/tls/i686/cmov/libdl.so.2 to /opt/jail/lib/tls/i686/cmov/libdl.so.2...done.
Copying /lib/tls/i686/cmov/libc.so.6 to /opt/jail/lib/tls/i686/cmov/libc.so.6...done.
Copying /lib/libz.so.1 to /opt/jail/lib/libz.so.1...done.
Copying /lib/ld-linux.so.2 to /opt/jail/lib/ld-linux.so.2...done.
Referensi:

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Compile SpiderMonkey Ubuntu Linux

Tags: January 4, 2013 11:23 PM
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Install terlebih dahulu paket-paket dependency yang diperlukan sebelum melakukan kompilasi.

# apt-get install nspr4-dev autoconf2.13
Download source SpiderMonkey 1.8.5 pada http://ftp.mozilla.org/pub/mozilla.org/js/js185-1.0.0.tar.gz.
# cd /tmp/
# wget http://ftp.mozilla.org/pub/mozilla.org/js/js185-1.0.0.tar.gz
# mkdir spidermonkey
# tar -zxvf js185-1.0.0.tar.gz -C /tmp/spidermonkey
# cd spidermonkey/js-1.8.5/js/src
# autoconf2.13
# ./configure
# make
Setelah selesai akan terdapat file binary pada shell/js, dimana file tersebut adalah Javascript Shell Interpreter yang menggunakan engine SpiderMonkey.
# shell/js
js> for (var i=0; i<3; i++) {         
print("notes.rioastamal.net");  
}
notes.rioastamal.net
notes.rioastamal.net
notes.rioastamal.net

js> quit()

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